Redundancy in Social Systems: Implications for Warning and Evacuation Planning

August 1991 (VOL. 9, NO. 2)

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This paper provides a basic introduction to the concepts and theory of redundancy in social systems. It examines the implications of redundancy as a design method in planning disaster response systems, with special attention given to warning and evacuation. It also examines some of the criticisms of redundancy and examines several problems associated with transferring the concepts of redundancy to social systems. Examples are used to illustrate the benefits of planned redundancy in the design of warning and evacuation systems.