Article Index

Adoption and Implementation of Hazard Adjustments Part Three: Findings and Recommendations

Authors
Michael K. Lindell et al.
Issue
November 1997
Description
As indicated from the preceding review, many aspects of hazard adjustment adoption and Implementation have been investigated within the realm of hazard research, while other aspects have been addressed by researchers in related areas. Review of this research has identified a variety of theoretical perspectives, a number of inconsistent results, and some important neglected issues. These problems all support a need for a more comprehensive theoretical formulation of the hazard adjustment process and an extensive program of research to provide the foundations for more sustainable development in areas that are vulnerable to natural hazards.

Adoption and Implementation of Hazard Adjustments Part Two: An Assessment of Strategies

Authors
Michael K. Lindell et al.
Issue
November 1997
Description
November 1997, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 389-414\r\nTitle: Adoption and Implementation of Hazard Adjustments\r\n Part Two: An Assessment of Strategies\r\nAuthor(s): the Committee on Adoption and Implementation of Natural Hazard Adjustments \r\n (Michael K. Lindell and etc.)\r\n

Again and Again: Is a Disaster What We Call “Disaster”? Some Conceptual Notes on Conceptualizing the Object of Disaster Sociology

Authors
Wolf R. Dumbrowsky
Issue
November 1995
Description
Following Carr who defined disaster as the collapse of cultural protections, this paper develops a sociological approach to processes commonly called a “disaster”. Epistemologically, the definitions used in science and practice are classified and redefined as “programmatic declarations”. Definers declare what they perceive as a problem and how they intend to solve it. Given the fact that neither “problem and perception” nor “solution and exigency” necessarily match, the probability of mismatches increases when inconsistent conceptions prestructure the view one has of reality. Still, the transformation of nature into culture is interpreted within “premodern” expression and false casual attractions: “Des Astro”, “evil star”, “bad luck” and “blind faith”. In contrast, this paper suggests a conception that defines disaster as an empirical falsification of human action, as a proof of the correctness of human insight into both nature and culture.

Age and Motivations to Become an Australian Volunteer Firefighter

Authors
Adrian Birch and Jim McLennan
Issue
March 2009
Description
Australian communities are very dependent on volunteer-based fire services for protection against wildfires and other disasters. However, volunteer firefighter numbers have declined significantly over the past decade, due mostly to impacts of economic and demographic changes on Australian society. One effect of these is that volunteer fire service memberships are ageing. Little is known with certainty about what motivates individuals to become volunteer firefighters. The current study of 988 volunteer firefighters suggests that those who volunteer do so because of a mix of self-oriented, fire safety-oriented, and community-oriented motivations. It appears that younger volunteers are more likely to be motivated by perceived self-oriented benefits from volunteering compared with older volunteers. However, they are no less motivated, on average, by safety concerns and community contribution motivations than are older volunteers.

Agency and Power in Modern Districts: A Rejoinder to Hewitt

Authors
Tom Horlick-Jones
Issue
November 1995
Description
No abstract

A Geographical Approach to Disaster Management: Analyzing Vulnerability in Relation to Decision And Intervention Resources In Lima And Callao

Authors
Pascale Metzger, Jérémy Robert and Alexis Sierra
Issue
March 2014
Description
This article describes a geographical approach to disaster management for a major earthquake in Lima and Callao, Peru by examining the interface between hazard (and vulnerability) research and disaster research. It invites reflection on the spatial and territorial dimensions of crises by analyzing the specification and location of decision and intervention resources. In view of the fragmented politico-administrative organization in this metropolitan area, the location of these resources shows a center/periphery type of spatial disparity, which questions if local jurisdictions can manage this type of event and underlines the necessity to rethink the management of territory in disasters.

A Half Century of Hazards Dissertation Research in Geography

Authors
John A. Cross
Issue
August 1983
Description
Geographic study of hazards has gained considerable prominence in the fifty years since Gilbert White’s Human Adjustment to Floods dissertation was published. Over 130 hazards dissertations have been written in the U.S. and Canada, and hazards articles have gained greater acceptance in major journals. Although White and several of his students served as advisors for nearly a fifth of these dissertations, most hazard dissertations represent efforts by students whose advisors have neither written nor advised a previous hazards dissertation. The majority of hazards dissertation writers obtain employment in positions where they are unable to advise future hazards dissertation writers, thus the production of the next generation of hazards geographers may be in peril.

Alternative Patterns of Decision-Making in Emergent Disaster Response Networks

Authors
Thomas E. Drabek
Issue
August 1983
Description
Data are presented which depict the pattern of decision-making in seven emergent multiorganizational networks (EMONS). These EMONS were the emergency response systems through which most search and rescue (SAR) activities were accomplished in one remote area mission and six natural disaster settings, including the 1979 Wichita Falls tornado, Hurricane Frederic (1979), and the eruption of Mount St. Helens (1980). Discussion of results focused on key structuring factors, i.e., why did these EMONS assume these particular shapes; performance implications; and policy implications. The major conclusion is that a new theoretical foundation for emergency management is required which is rooted in a locally focused perspective which reflects an imagery of loosely coupled systems whose degrees of interdependency undergo episodic, but very temporary, change.

American Sign Language & Emergency Alerts: The Relationship between Language, Disability, and Accessible Emergency Messaging

Authors
DeeDee Bennett, Salimah LaForce, Christina Touzet, and Kay Chiodo
Issue
March 2018
Description
Emergency alert messages are not always completely accessible for people who are Deaf that rely on American Sign Language (ASL). ASL is a visual and conceptual language that has its own unique syntax and grammar. ASL has no roots in English and is the 3rd most taught foreign language in our colleges today. Not all individuals who are deaf rely on ASL for “clear and effective” communication. For many individuals who become hardof- hearing or deaf later in life (late-deafened), closed captioning can provide accommodations. For individuals who are Deaf and rely on ASL as their primary language, closed captioning is not a useful means of communication because the information is being conveyed in a language most ASL users do not fully comprehend. Similarly, emergency alert messages delivered via SMS text or email can also present confusion to ASL users who may struggle to understand the written English messages. One size does not fit all; and in this case, English text as a sole means of communication is not entirely accessible for people who rely on ASL. This paper outlines the relationship between language, disability, and emergency messaging as learned from several research studies examining the accessibility of public alerts and warnings.

A Mitigation Tale Of Two Texas Cities

Authors
Carla Norris-Raynbird
Issue
August 2005
Description
No abstract.