Article Index

Adoption and Implementation of Hazard Adjustments Part Two: An Assessment of Strategies

Authors
Michael K. Lindell et al.
Issue
November 1997
Description
November 1997, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 389-414\r\nTitle: Adoption and Implementation of Hazard Adjustments\r\n Part Two: An Assessment of Strategies\r\nAuthor(s): the Committee on Adoption and Implementation of Natural Hazard Adjustments \r\n (Michael K. Lindell and etc.)\r\n

Again and Again: Is a Disaster What We Call “Disaster”? Some Conceptual Notes on Conceptualizing the Object of Disaster Sociology

Authors
Wolf R. Dumbrowsky
Issue
November 1995
Description
Following Carr who defined disaster as the collapse of cultural protections, this paper develops a sociological approach to processes commonly called a “disaster”. Epistemologically, the definitions used in science and practice are classified and redefined as “programmatic declarations”. Definers declare what they perceive as a problem and how they intend to solve it. Given the fact that neither “problem and perception” nor “solution and exigency” necessarily match, the probability of mismatches increases when inconsistent conceptions prestructure the view one has of reality. Still, the transformation of nature into culture is interpreted within “premodern” expression and false casual attractions: “Des Astro”, “evil star”, “bad luck” and “blind faith”. In contrast, this paper suggests a conception that defines disaster as an empirical falsification of human action, as a proof of the correctness of human insight into both nature and culture.

Age and Motivations to Become an Australian Volunteer Firefighter

Authors
Adrian Birch and Jim McLennan
Issue
March 2009
Description
Australian communities are very dependent on volunteer-based fire services for protection against wildfires and other disasters. However, volunteer firefighter numbers have declined significantly over the past decade, due mostly to impacts of economic and demographic changes on Australian society. One effect of these is that volunteer fire service memberships are ageing. Little is known with certainty about what motivates individuals to become volunteer firefighters. The current study of 988 volunteer firefighters suggests that those who volunteer do so because of a mix of self-oriented, fire safety-oriented, and community-oriented motivations. It appears that younger volunteers are more likely to be motivated by perceived self-oriented benefits from volunteering compared with older volunteers. However, they are no less motivated, on average, by safety concerns and community contribution motivations than are older volunteers.

Agency and Power in Modern Districts: A Rejoinder to Hewitt

Authors
Tom Horlick-Jones
Issue
November 1995
Description
No abstract

A Geographical Approach to Disaster Management: Analyzing Vulnerability in Relation to Decision And Intervention Resources In Lima And Callao

Authors
Pascale Metzger, Jérémy Robert and Alexis Sierra
Issue
March 2014
Description
This article describes a geographical approach to disaster management for a major earthquake in Lima and Callao, Peru by examining the interface between hazard (and vulnerability) research and disaster research. It invites reflection on the spatial and territorial dimensions of crises by analyzing the specification and location of decision and intervention resources. In view of the fragmented politico-administrative organization in this metropolitan area, the location of these resources shows a center/periphery type of spatial disparity, which questions if local jurisdictions can manage this type of event and underlines the necessity to rethink the management of territory in disasters.

A Half Century of Hazards Dissertation Research in Geography

Authors
John A. Cross
Issue
August 1983
Description
Geographic study of hazards has gained considerable prominence in the fifty years since Gilbert White’s Human Adjustment to Floods dissertation was published. Over 130 hazards dissertations have been written in the U.S. and Canada, and hazards articles have gained greater acceptance in major journals. Although White and several of his students served as advisors for nearly a fifth of these dissertations, most hazard dissertations represent efforts by students whose advisors have neither written nor advised a previous hazards dissertation. The majority of hazards dissertation writers obtain employment in positions where they are unable to advise future hazards dissertation writers, thus the production of the next generation of hazards geographers may be in peril.

Alternative Patterns of Decision-Making in Emergent Disaster Response Networks

Authors
Thomas E. Drabek
Issue
August 1983
Description
Data are presented which depict the pattern of decision-making in seven emergent multiorganizational networks (EMONS). These EMONS were the emergency response systems through which most search and rescue (SAR) activities were accomplished in one remote area mission and six natural disaster settings, including the 1979 Wichita Falls tornado, Hurricane Frederic (1979), and the eruption of Mount St. Helens (1980). Discussion of results focused on key structuring factors, i.e., why did these EMONS assume these particular shapes; performance implications; and policy implications. The major conclusion is that a new theoretical foundation for emergency management is required which is rooted in a locally focused perspective which reflects an imagery of loosely coupled systems whose degrees of interdependency undergo episodic, but very temporary, change.

A Mitigation Tale Of Two Texas Cities

Authors
Carla Norris-Raynbird
Issue
August 2005
Description
No abstract.

"An Act of Allah”: Religious Explanations for Floods in Bangladesh as Survival Strategy

Authors
Hanna Schmuck
Issue
March 2000
Description
In countries of the so-called Third World, disaster prevention, preparedness, and relief do not have the expected outcome. Even if people are informed and warned about the arrival of a flood, cyclone, or earthquake, they hesitate to take precautions or leave the area. In some cases, they have to be forced to take refuge in the shelters built for this purpose. They seem to be helpless victims accepting their fate. This is especially the case in Bangladesh, a country which is frequently affected by floods, tornadoes, and cyclones. The affected people, mostly Muslim, regard these hazards as an act of Allah. Through the events He is showing His will and power against which they cannot and should not do anything. In the view of aid agencies, this perception and explanation hampers both external as well as indigenous efforts to survive disasters. However, the findings of my research on local perception and strategies to cope with floods reveal this conception to be a healthy reaction, self-help strategy to overcome crises as quickly as possible and return to daily life. As Allah has given the floods, He will also give believers the strength to survive them. The religious explanation prevents those affected literally wasting time and energy asking why disasters happen to them and not to others.

An Assessment of the Return-Entry Process for Hurricane Rita 2005

Authors
Laura K. Siebeneck and Thomas J. Cova
Issue
August 2008
Description
Return-entry is the movement of an evacuated population back to an area following the issuance of an all-clear message. This research examines the geographic, communication, and demographic factors that affect return-entry compliance rates using Hurricane Rita 2005 as a case study. Surveys were mailed to 1,200 households in a twelve county area comprising the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) return-entry plan. The results show that compliance with the Hurricane Rita return-entry plan was low, as 46.4% of respondents returned home on or after their scheduled return date, while only 23.2% returned on their exact scheduled return date. In addition, communication of the return-entry plan was relatively poor as 54.0% of evacuees reported receiving the all-clear message and 19.5% of respondents reported being aware of the TxDOT staggered return-entry plan. In regard to factors that affect the return process, a relationship was found between distance evacuated and return-entry date, in that the farther a household evacuates, the more likely it will return at a later date. A relationship was also found between scheduled return-entry date and compliance, as people scheduled to return to the zone that sustained damage (Day 3) had a higher rate of compliance than those evacuees who returned to the undamaged zone (Day 2). Finally, female respondents were more likely to comply with the return-entry orders than males respondents, and individuals of lower education levels were more likely to comply with return-entry orders than individuals of higher education levels.