Article Index

A Test of Situational Communication Theory: Public Response to the 1990 Browning Earthquake Prediction

Authors
Ann M. Major
Issue
November 1993
Description
Iben Browning\\'s December 3, 1990 earthquake prediction for the New Madrid fault region provided the setting for examining public response and communication about a disaster warning. Grunig\\'s (1983) situational theory of publics was used to examine respondents\\' orientations toward the earthquake problem, that is whether they recognized the problem and whether they felt they could do anything about the problem.

Availability of Canadian Social Science Disaster Management Education

Authors
Leanna Falkiner
Issue
March 2005
Description
No abstract

Barton's Theory of Collective Stress is a Classic and Worth Testing

Authors
David F. Gillespie
Issue
November 1988
Description
No abstract.

Behavior During Earthquakes: A Southern Italian Example

Authors
David Alexander
Issue
March 1990
Description
This article concerns mass reaction to a violent earthquake in the eastern part of Naples Province, southern Italy.Patterns of perception and mass behavior are reconstructed from the testimonies of a group of local high school students and from the author\\'s personal experience of the event. This information shows that the perception, and therefore the reaction, of people differed according to age group, older people being by virtue of experience the first to realize that an earthquake was happening. Flight behavior was the prevalent first reaction to the tremors, and fear of being indoors rapidly developed. During the early stages of the emergency panic, defined as nonrational imperative behavior, was common and people were injured as a result. Family ties, however, remained an important influence upon behavior, although they did not impede flight.\r\nThe findings of this study generally confirm previous literature on mass reactions to earthquake events, except that anxiety, panic, and flight appear to have been more widespread, and preparedness less common, than in many other cases that sociologists have studied.

Beyond Family Crisis: Family Adaptation

Authors
David H. Olson, Joan M. Patterson, Hamilton I. McCubbin
Issue
March 1983
Description
Families in Disaster research has drawn heavily from the family stress and crises research paradigms and concepts advanced by Reuben Hill\\'s ABC-X Model and by related research. This article attempts to broaden the perspective of family behavior in disaster situations by advancing additional concepts, definitions and propositions. Findings from longitudinal research on American families faced with the historically unique traumatic situations of having a husband/father held captive or unaccounted for int he Vietnam War were analyzed first in reference to the ABC-X Model, which suggested the need to expand this classic model. This article introduces the Double ABC-X Model in an effort to capture the dynamic nature nature of family response to stress over time. This expanded model includes: AA-the family\\'s pile up of life events and stressors over time; BB-the family\\'s resources which are strengthened or developed within and in transaction with the community and include coping and social support; CC-the family\\'s perception of the stressor and related changes in the family; and XX-the additional end state of family adaptation following a crisis. This model merits careful consideration and additional testing in light of stress and disaster studies reviewed and propositions advanced during the past decade.

Beyond the IRB: An Ethical Toolkit for Long-Term Disaster Research

Authors
Katherine E. Browne and Lori Peek
Issue
March 2014
Description
This article argues for expanding the ethical frame of concern in disaster research from the early phases of site access to longer-term issues that may arise in the field. Drawing on ethical theory, these arguments are developed in five sections. First, we identify the philosophical roots of ethical principles used in social science research. Second, we discuss how ethical concerns span the entire lifecycle of disaster-related research projects but are not fully addressed in the initial protocols for gaining Institutional Research Board (IRB) approval. Third, we introduce the idea of the philosophically informed “ethical toolkit,” established to help build awareness of moral obligations and to provide ways to navigate ethical confusion to reach sound research decisions. Specifically, we use the work of W. D. Ross to introduce a template of moral considerations that include fidelity, reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence, selfimprovement, and non-maleficence. We suggest that in the absence of a clear framework that researchers can use to think through ethical dilemmas as they arise, Ross’ pluralist approach to ethical problem solving offers flexibility and clarity and, at the same time, leaves space to apply our own understanding of the context in question. Fourth, we draw on six examples from our research studies conducted following Hurricane Katrina. Using these examples, we discuss how, in retrospect, we can apply Ross’ moral considerations to the ethical issues raised including: (1) shifting vulnerability among disaster survivors, (2) the expectations of participants, and (3) concerns about reciprocity in long-term fieldwork. Fifth, we consider how the ethical toolkit we are proposing may improve the quality of research and research relationships.

Beyond Vertical Evacuation: Research Considerations for a Comprehensive “Vertical Protection Strategy”

Authors
Lucia Velotti, Joseph E. Trainor, Karen Engel, Manuel Torres and Takumi Myamoto
Issue
March 2013
Description
Vertical protective strategy (VPS) refers to activities intended to move people to a level of elevation above a (perceived) threat within the area at risk. VPS is an important but understudied approach to providing safety, particularly in the case of short warning events, such as tsunamis and coastal floods. While extensive engineering analyses have looked at the feasibility of VPS, the social, scientific and policy analyses associated with it have only been given cursory attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by first briefly introducing VPS and then discussing the strategy in relation to shelter in-place and traditional horizontal evacuation. We then go on to highlight issues related to the adoption and implementation of VPS as a government sponsored activity. Last, we propose a research agenda that identifies areas to be further investigated.

Blame Assignment in a Diffuse Disaster Situation: A Case Example of the Role of an Emergency Citizen Group

Authors
David M. Neal
Issue
August 1984
Description
Blame occurs frequently after disasters, yet, the process of blame is a neglected topic of disaster research. Our study looks at how a grassroots citizen\\'s group blamed a local company for air pollution and health problems. The blaming process directed toward the company aided in the mobilization of the citizen\\'s group but also prevented any immediate issue-oriented actions. As blame directed toward the company decreased within the group, solidarity within the group decreased. Yet, as blame decreased within the group, issue-oriented actions by the group increased. The placement of blame by the group had both positive and negative consequences for their goals. Comparing this case with other studies of blame in disaster, we found: 1) placing blame does not lead to structural changes in the social system, 2) organizations can be the focus of blame, and 3) only one target of blame can exist. In addition, we suggest that the type of disaster (diffuse or focalized, and technological or natural) may have an impact upon who or what becomes the target of blame.

Book and Film Reviews

Authors
Ronald W. Perry, William A. Wallace, Eric K. Noji, Charles E. Faupel, Anthony Yezer
Issue
March 1989
Description
Reviews of Evacuation in Emergencies: An Annotated Guide to Research and A Guide for Emergency Evacuation Management and Operations by Ronald W. Perry Review of Terminal Disasters: Computer Applications in Emergency Management by William A. Wallace Reviews of Mass Casualties: A Lessons Learned Approach and Triage Decision Trees and Triage Protocols by Eric K. Noji Review of Race, Religion, and Ethnicity in Disaster Recovery by Charles E. Faupel Review of The Economics of Bushfires: The South Australian Experience by Anthony Yezer.

Book and Film Reviews

Authors
Ronald W. Perry, Beverly A. Cigler, Charlotte A. Cottrill, Maxwell A. Cameron, James S. Nyman, Judith A. Bradbury, Daniel J. Alesch
Issue
August 1989
Description
Crisis Management: A Casebook.\r\n\r\nManaging Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives.\r\n\r\nDisasters: Violence of Nature and Threats by Man.\r\n\r\nEnvironmental Hazards: Communicating Risk as a Social Process.\r\n\r\nRisk Assessment and Management: Emergency Planning Perspectives.\r\n\r\nThe Politics of Earthquake Prediction.\r\n\r\nDisable Persons and Earthquake Hazards.\r\n\r\nSearching for Safety.\r\n\r\n