Article Index

Assumptions and Processes for the Development of No-Notice Evacuation Scenarios for Transportation Simulations

Authors
Pamela Murray-Tuite and Brian Wolshon
Issue
March 2013
Description
Emergency management agencies and departments of transportation benefit from transportation simulation support when developing their emergency response or evacuation plans. No-notice events are increasingly becoming part of these plans. Few, if any, studies have shown how to operationalize general no-notice evacuation considerations. To fill this gap, this article describes essential features and reasonable assumptions that should be considered in the development of no-notice evacuation scenarios for use in conjunction with transportation simulation models. Although the information presented here centers on a specific location and disaster, the concepts may be generalized and adapted for use in other locations and hazards and are of value to both practitioners as well as researchers seeking to develop similar models.

A Study of Mass Media Reporting in Emergencies

Authors
Shunji Mikami, Kakuko Miyata, Osamu Hiroi
Issue
March 1985
Description
This paper examines the operations of mass media in disasters, the content of messages in disaster reporting, and the distortion in reporting warnings and disasters, based on empirical studies in several communities in Japan.\r\nIn the writing stage, we found that the broadcast media are the primary source of information in most cases. However, the warnings often did not reach a complete range of audience, nor could it induce an adaptive response among these recipients.\r\nAs for the mass media operation during and after the disasters, we found that the difficulties in mobilizing resources, uncertainties in reliable news sources, and malfunctioning communication channels were the main obstacles in reporting damages.\r\nThe main characteristics of the content of mass media reporting in disasters are described. Six types of information are found in the disaster reporting of the broadcast media: Information on (1) advice or directions, (2) disaster agent, (3) safety message, (4) damage, (5) countermeasures, and (6) restoration. The results of the content analysis of the broadcast of two stations on the day of the Nihonkai-Chuubu Earthquake shows that personal messages and damages information were the most heavily broadcast. This did not always match the information needs of the residents.\r\nThe media in Japan tend to exaggerate damages in disasters, leading to the distorted perception of hazards. They also tend not to report sufficiently the news people want to get. The reasons for these inaccurate reportings are: (1) journalist\\'s attitude to news editing and reporting, and (2) distorted images or myths among journalists. The content of newspaper reporting of a false warning was analyzed as a case study.

A Study of Pet Rescue in Two Disasters

Authors
Susan K. Voeks, Larry T. Glickman, Sebastian E. Heath
Issue
November 2000
Description
Pet rescue endanger public and animal health in disasters and are a direct consequence of pet evacuation failure. This study characterized pet rescue attempts in two disasters. A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted of 397 households in Yuba County, California, where residents were under an evacuation notice due to flooding. A mail survey was conducted of 241 households in Weyauwega, Wisconsin, where residents evacuated from a hazardous chemical spill. Risk factors for pet rescue were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Case households were defined as those that evacuated without pets and later attempted to rescue them, while control households were those that evacuated without their pet and did not attempt a rescue. Approximately 20 percent and 50 percent of pet-owning households that evacuated failed to take their pet with them in Yuba County and Weyauwega, respectively: Approximately 80 percent of persons who reentered the evacuated area did so to rescue their pet. Attempts to rescue a pet were most common by households with children. Predisaster planning should, therefore, place a higher priority on facilitating pet evacuation so as to minimize the subsequent need to rescue pets.

A Test of Situational Communication Theory: Public Response to the 1990 Browning Earthquake Prediction

Authors
Ann M. Major
Issue
November 1993
Description
Iben Browning\\'s December 3, 1990 earthquake prediction for the New Madrid fault region provided the setting for examining public response and communication about a disaster warning. Grunig\\'s (1983) situational theory of publics was used to examine respondents\\' orientations toward the earthquake problem, that is whether they recognized the problem and whether they felt they could do anything about the problem.

Availability of Canadian Social Science Disaster Management Education

Authors
Leanna Falkiner
Issue
March 2005
Description
No abstract

Barton's Theory of Collective Stress is a Classic and Worth Testing

Authors
David F. Gillespie
Issue
November 1988
Description
No abstract.

Behavior During Earthquakes: A Southern Italian Example

Authors
David Alexander
Issue
March 1990
Description
This article concerns mass reaction to a violent earthquake in the eastern part of Naples Province, southern Italy.Patterns of perception and mass behavior are reconstructed from the testimonies of a group of local high school students and from the author\\'s personal experience of the event. This information shows that the perception, and therefore the reaction, of people differed according to age group, older people being by virtue of experience the first to realize that an earthquake was happening. Flight behavior was the prevalent first reaction to the tremors, and fear of being indoors rapidly developed. During the early stages of the emergency panic, defined as nonrational imperative behavior, was common and people were injured as a result. Family ties, however, remained an important influence upon behavior, although they did not impede flight.\r\nThe findings of this study generally confirm previous literature on mass reactions to earthquake events, except that anxiety, panic, and flight appear to have been more widespread, and preparedness less common, than in many other cases that sociologists have studied.

Better Understanding Disasters by Better Using History: Systematically Using the Historical Record as One Way to Advance Research into Disasters

Authors
Bas Ban Bavel and Daniel Curtis
Issue
March 2016
Description
This paper argues that the understanding of causes and effects of hazards and shocks could be furthered by making more explicit and systematic use of the historical record, that is, by using ‘the past’ as a laboratory to test hypotheses in a careful way. History lends itself towards this end because of the opportunity it offers to identify distinct and divergent social structures existing very close to one another on a regional level and the possibility this creates of making comparisons between societal responses to shocks spatially and chronologically. Furthermore, the basic richness of the historical record itself enables us to make a long-term reconstruction of the social, economic and cultural impact of hazards and shocks simply not possible in contemporary disaster studies material.

Beyond Family Crisis: Family Adaptation

Authors
David H. Olson, Joan M. Patterson, Hamilton I. McCubbin
Issue
March 1983
Description
Families in Disaster research has drawn heavily from the family stress and crises research paradigms and concepts advanced by Reuben Hill\\'s ABC-X Model and by related research. This article attempts to broaden the perspective of family behavior in disaster situations by advancing additional concepts, definitions and propositions. Findings from longitudinal research on American families faced with the historically unique traumatic situations of having a husband/father held captive or unaccounted for int he Vietnam War were analyzed first in reference to the ABC-X Model, which suggested the need to expand this classic model. This article introduces the Double ABC-X Model in an effort to capture the dynamic nature nature of family response to stress over time. This expanded model includes: AA-the family\\'s pile up of life events and stressors over time; BB-the family\\'s resources which are strengthened or developed within and in transaction with the community and include coping and social support; CC-the family\\'s perception of the stressor and related changes in the family; and XX-the additional end state of family adaptation following a crisis. This model merits careful consideration and additional testing in light of stress and disaster studies reviewed and propositions advanced during the past decade.

Beyond the IRB: An Ethical Toolkit for Long-Term Disaster Research

Authors
Katherine E. Browne and Lori Peek
Issue
March 2014
Description
This article argues for expanding the ethical frame of concern in disaster research from the early phases of site access to longer-term issues that may arise in the field. Drawing on ethical theory, these arguments are developed in five sections. First, we identify the philosophical roots of ethical principles used in social science research. Second, we discuss how ethical concerns span the entire lifecycle of disaster-related research projects but are not fully addressed in the initial protocols for gaining Institutional Research Board (IRB) approval. Third, we introduce the idea of the philosophically informed “ethical toolkit,” established to help build awareness of moral obligations and to provide ways to navigate ethical confusion to reach sound research decisions. Specifically, we use the work of W. D. Ross to introduce a template of moral considerations that include fidelity, reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence, selfimprovement, and non-maleficence. We suggest that in the absence of a clear framework that researchers can use to think through ethical dilemmas as they arise, Ross’ pluralist approach to ethical problem solving offers flexibility and clarity and, at the same time, leaves space to apply our own understanding of the context in question. Fourth, we draw on six examples from our research studies conducted following Hurricane Katrina. Using these examples, we discuss how, in retrospect, we can apply Ross’ moral considerations to the ethical issues raised including: (1) shifting vulnerability among disaster survivors, (2) the expectations of participants, and (3) concerns about reciprocity in long-term fieldwork. Fifth, we consider how the ethical toolkit we are proposing may improve the quality of research and research relationships.