Article Index

Simulation Study of Confusion at Terminl Train Stations Caused by Earthquake Warnings

Authors
Hiroaki Yoshil
Issue
March 1985
Description
Three simulation models with different areas of application are developed in this report to predict the risk posed by the rapid return to their homes of people around terminal stations immediately after earthquake warnings issued in daytime. These are also useful tools to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to mitigate the risk. The applications of these models to several terminal stations and train lines with many passengers were carried out and the results indicate the following:\r\n1. Around 3-40 percent of the people around terminal stations should walk home.\r\n2. Those who intend to take trains should go to terminal stations three or four hours ahead of time they might otherwise need. \r\n3. Strong traffic control at passages and wicket gates should be undertaken by police officers and station staff as soon as possible. \r\n4. It is very important to make an \\"earthquake diagram\\" and to keep it as available as possible.\r\n5. Public officers involved in the planning for the prevention of disasters should build \\"information bases\\" at terminal stations to announce various types of information to waiting passengers after earthquake warnings have been issued. \r\n6. Finally, public officers and managers of businesses around terminal stations should inform people for whom they are responsible, about the circumstances anticipated and the measures mentioned above.

Situational and Dispositional Determinants of Cognitive and Affective Reactions to the New Madrid Earthquake Prediction

Authors
Louis Venezlano, Douglas Atwood, Lawrence V. Clark
Issue
November 1993
Description
A New Mexico climatologist, Iben Browning, forecast an even chance that a major earthquake would strike the New Madrid fault on or around December 3, 1990. The extended media coverage associated with this \\"projection\\" may have generated the most acute public awareness of earthquake hazards in the mid-continental United States in recent memory. In order to investigate what effect situational and dispositional factors had on cognitive and affective reactions to Browning\\'s \\"projection,\\" 428 college students residing in the area of Southeast Missouri predicted to be affected by an earthquake on the New Madrid fault were administered an extensive questionnaire.

Size Doesn’t Matter: The Complicated Relationship Between National Offshore Oil Spill Events, Framing, and Policy

Authors
Alex Greer and Eric Best
Issue
March 2016
Description
Understanding issue framing in the context of offshore spills is important because it shapes how media, the public, interest groups, and politicians define failure and propose acceptable solutions that, through agenda setting, become policy. This paper explores the complex relationship between agenda setting, framing, and attention garnered by U.S. offshore oil spill events and resulting federal policy. To examine this important issue, this study considers nine major offshore oil spills in U.S. waters, exploring the attention paid to each spill and any resulting policy changes. Analysis of these past spills suggests that the size of offshore oil spills is not indicative of the amount of media and policy attention that an event will trigger. In contrast, framing is an important element of the reaction to these rare maritime disasters. While spills in U.S. waters large enough for inclusion in this study were limited, results support previous findings that suggest that location is one of the most important factors in this complicated relationship.

Smart Developments in Dangerous Locations: A Reality Check of Existing New Urbanist Developments

Authors
Philip R. Berke, Yan Song
Issue
March 2009
Description
Since its inception in the mid-1980s, New Urbanist developments have been rapidly expanding. In this article, we examine the extent to which New Urbanist developments are exposed to flood hazards, demonstrate the hazard mitigation measures taken by New Urbanist developments, and compare New Urbanist and conventional developments in incorporating hazard mitigation measures. We find that New Urbanist developments are vulnerable to floods throughout the U.S. and a substantial number (36%) of New Urbanist developments are exposed to hazards. Furthermore, we show that New Urbanist projects use more mitigation measures overall than conventional developments, but these additional techniques focus on reducing structural vulnerability, which offers less security than site designs that avoid development in floodplains. Finally, we offer our suggestions on how New Urbanism movement can lead the efforts in building communities that are resilient to natural hazards.

Social Capital: A Missing Link to Disaster Recovery

Authors
Rajib Shaw, Yuko Nakagawa
Issue
March 2004
Description
Post-disaster recovery processes should be considered as opportunities for development, by revitalizing the local economy and upgrading livelihoods and living conditions. social capital, which is defined as a function of trust, social norms, participation, and network, can play an important role in recovery. This paper examines the role of social capital in the post earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction programs in two cases: Kobe, Japan and Gujarat, India. The Kobe case study shows that the community with social capital and with a tradition of community activities can pro-actively participate in the reconstruction program, and thereby can make a successful and speedy recovery. a model for bonding, bridging and linking social capital was developed from the Kobe experience, and was applied to Gujarat in four different communities. It was observed that the community with social capital records the highest satisfaction rate for the new town planning and has the sppediest recovery rate. The role of community leaders has been prominent in utilizing social capital in the recovery process, and facilitating collective decision-making. Thus, although the two case studies differ in socio-economic and cultural contexts, the communities’ social capital and leadership are found to be the most effective elements in both cases in enhancing collective actions and disaster recovery.

Social Capital and the Mental Health Impacts of Hurricane Katrina: Assessing Long-Term Patterns of Psychosocial Distress

Authors
Francis O. Adeola and J. Steven Picou
Issue
March 2014
Description
Hurricane Katrina was the most costly disaster in U.S. history, creating severe physical and mental health impacts among the population exposed along the Gulf Coast. The physical and economic assessments have been the focus of many previous studies with inadequate attention paid to the long-term emotional and psychosocial toll on survivors. This study evaluates the socio-demographic and contextual variations in Katrina’s depressive and psychosocial stress impacts among a random sample of survivors in the most devastated counties/parishes of Louisiana and Mississippi three years after the storm. Our primary objective was to assess the influence of social capital, or lack of it, for mental health outcomes. Using a comprehensive random digit dialing telephone survey data-set, descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques including differences of means, factor analysis, multivariate discriminant analysis, and Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis, were utilized to test hypotheses derived from social capital theory. Strong support was found for the hypothesized relationships; empirical evidence clearly shows that lack of social capital predicts both depression and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. The results further reveal that Katrina’s mental health impacts are not evenly distributed. Depression, stress, and psychosocial impacts are skewed toward African Americans, older adults, women, unmarried adults, less educated, and people with weak social networks. Theoretical and applied policy implications of these findings are discussed for understanding lingering mental health problems three years post-Katrina.

Social Dimensions of Disaster Recovery

Authors
Kathleen Tierney and Anthony Oliver-Smith
Issue
August 2012
Description
Research on disaster recovery has moved beyond earlier uni-dimensional, stage-oriented, and linear conceptualizations and toward approaches that recognize variability, social inequality and diversity, and disparities in recovery processes and outcomes. Theory development has been hampered by the lack of a systematic comparative focus and a failure to contextualize recovery within broader global and societal conditions and trends. Recovery theories should take into account a range of factors that include (1) pre-disaster factors that shape vulnerabilities and exposures at multiple scales, such as indicators of social and economic well-being and governmental capacity; (2) disaster impacts and their implications for recovery; (3) immediate post-impact responses; and (4) post-disaster variables such as the quality of governance systems; institutional capacity; civil society-state relationships; systems of social provision; the appropriateness, coverage, and equity of recovery aid; and post-disaster conditions, trends and events that occur independently of disasters but that also shape recovery processes and outcomes.

Social Influence Perspective on Crowd Behavior

Authors
Leon Mann
Issue
August 1986
Description
Research guided by a social influence perspective on crowd behavior is considered under three categories: leader to crowd; crowd to members; crowd to outsiders. It is argued that a single model of crowd influence which relies on a single process is inadequate. It is found that several social influence processes affect the attitudes and actions of crowd members - social facilitation, modeling and imitation, conformity to group norms, group discussion and persuasive appeals. The operation of these social influence processes is examined for a variety of crowd forms including crusade rallies (Newton & Mann, 1980), crazy auctions (Mann, 1975), spectators to a dispute (Mann, Paleg & Hawkins, 1978), baiting crowds (Mann, 1981) and queues (Mann, 1970, 1977). The size of the crowd is shown to be an important factor mediating the probability that people will be drawn to the crowd, induced to join, and become influenced by the leader\\'s persuasive message. It is suggested that cultural differences in such factors as conformity pressures are linked to the incidence of crowd activity and the likelihood of social influence occurring in crowds in various countries. Future research should investigate the comparative vulnerability to influence of strangers and groups of friends in crowds, individual differences in susceptibility to crowd influences and discontinuities in individual behavior associated with changes in crowd size and proportion of crowd members already responding.

Social Location and Self-Protective Behavior: Implications for Earthquake Preparedness

Authors
Margie L. Edwards
Issue
November 1993
Description
Participation in household preparedness activities is examined in light of the first highly publicized earthquake prediction issued for the Central United States. Drawing on earlier research conducted in California, this paper examines the adoption of self-protective measures in Memphis, Tennessee. Survey data show that while people in this city are generally aware of and concerned about the earthquake hazard in their community, few have adopted the necessary precautions to reduce the negative effects of a damaging earthquake. However, those respondents who were most likely to engage in self-protective behavior are situated in structurally advantageous locations. Thus, future community-wide planning and preparedness efforts must be more attentive to limitations on household resources when advocating individual responsibility for safety.

Social Media as Participatory Tools in Post-Disaster Reconstruction: Re-Negotiating Power Relationships and Achieving Self-Empowerment

Authors
Serena Tagliacozzo and Caterina Arcidiancono
Issue
August 2016
Description
This paper presents the first attempt to integrate studies on the use of social media for public participation and social mobilization with research on post-disaster reconstruction (PDR). The description of three case studies of disasters in different social and cultural contexts is used to demonstrate that social media represent means to re-discuss power relationships and the meaning of the disaster during the recovery process. It is also argued that certain elements of the recovery process may exacerbate the contrast between citizens and authorities and result in social media being used as self-empowerment platform to contest rather than to collaborate with authorities. In conclusion, it is suggested that this open conflict may hinder the achievement of a full recovery process, and that new studies should be geared toward examining possible ways to support and enhance authorities-citizens communication during the PDR process by the means of social media.