International Journal for Mass Emergencies and Disasters
- David H. Olson, Joan M. Patterson, Hamilton I. McCubbin
- March 1983
- Families in Disaster research has drawn heavily from the family stress and crises research paradigms and concepts advanced by Reuben Hill\\'s ABC-X Model and by related research. This article attempts to broaden the perspective of family behavior in disaster situations by advancing additional concepts, definitions and propositions. Findings from longitudinal research on American families faced with the historically unique traumatic situations of having a husband/father held captive or unaccounted for int he Vietnam War were analyzed first in reference to the ABC-X Model, which suggested the need to expand this classic model. This article introduces the Double ABC-X Model in an effort to capture the dynamic nature nature of family response to stress over time. This expanded model includes: AA-the family\\'s pile up of life events and stressors over time; BB-the family\\'s resources which are strengthened or developed within and in transaction with the community and include coping and social support; CC-the family\\'s perception of the stressor and related changes in the family; and XX-the additional end state of family adaptation following a crisis. This model merits careful consideration and additional testing in light of stress and disaster studies reviewed and propositions advanced during the past decade.
- Samantha Penta, Samantha Phillips, Amber Silver, and Emily Barrett
- March 2019
- Experiential learning has emerged as a best practice in higher education and professional
development programs. This article describes the 100-hour training requirement of an
undergraduate degree program at a mid-sized public research university in the
northeastern United States. The four tiers of the training program include: (1) foundational
training, (2) professional development, (3) community engagement, and (4) concentrationspecific
training. Each tier is assigned a minimum number of hours that students must
complete in order to meet the requirements of the program. The tiered structure focuses
students’ activity, ensuring that they engage in experiences that support the development
of each of the content areas deemed important for student success as they transition from
the academic to the professional realm. This paper illustrates a new way of integrating
experiential learning into emergency management curriculum through a 100-hour training
requirement, and demonstrates the benefits this type of educational experience can have
for the students and the larger community. Beyond educational theory, external training
opportunities professionalize students to the practical knowledge of the field and into a
culture of continuous learning. It also offers the potential to serve the broader community,
reflecting the value that higher education can have in their communities.
- Katherine E. Browne and Lori Peek
- March 2014
- This article argues for expanding the ethical frame of concern in disaster research from
the early phases of site access to longer-term issues that may arise in the field. Drawing
on ethical theory, these arguments are developed in five sections. First, we identify the
philosophical roots of ethical principles used in social science research. Second, we
discuss how ethical concerns span the entire lifecycle of disaster-related research
projects but are not fully addressed in the initial protocols for gaining Institutional
Research Board (IRB) approval. Third, we introduce the idea of the philosophically
informed “ethical toolkit,” established to help build awareness of moral obligations and
to provide ways to navigate ethical confusion to reach sound research decisions.
Specifically, we use the work of W. D. Ross to introduce a template of moral
considerations that include fidelity, reparation, gratitude, justice, beneficence, selfimprovement,
and non-maleficence. We suggest that in the absence of a clear framework
that researchers can use to think through ethical dilemmas as they arise, Ross’ pluralist
approach to ethical problem solving offers flexibility and clarity and, at the same time,
leaves space to apply our own understanding of the context in question. Fourth, we draw
on six examples from our research studies conducted following Hurricane Katrina. Using
these examples, we discuss how, in retrospect, we can apply Ross’ moral considerations
to the ethical issues raised including: (1) shifting vulnerability among disaster survivors,
(2) the expectations of participants, and (3) concerns about reciprocity in long-term fieldwork. Fifth, we consider how the ethical toolkit we are proposing may improve the
quality of research and research relationships.
- Lucia Velotti, Joseph E. Trainor, Karen Engel, Manuel Torres and Takumi Myamoto
- March 2013
- Vertical protective strategy (VPS) refers to activities intended to move people to a level of elevation above a (perceived) threat within the area at risk. VPS is an important but understudied approach to providing safety, particularly in the case of short warning events, such as tsunamis and coastal floods. While extensive engineering analyses have looked at the feasibility of VPS, the social, scientific and policy analyses associated with it have only been given cursory attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by first briefly introducing VPS and then discussing the strategy in relation to shelter in-place and traditional horizontal evacuation. We then go on to highlight issues related to the adoption and implementation of VPS as a government sponsored activity. Last, we propose a research agenda that identifies areas to be further investigated.
- Juan-Pablo Sarmiento, Catalina Sarmiento and Meenakshi Jerath
- March 2017
- Disaster risk results from the interaction between hazards and vulnerabilities, but there are considerable variations in how vulnerability and its three dimensions (exposure, fragility, and resilience) are conceptualized and measured. This study demonstrates how certain bio-indicators allow an objective, direct, and efficient measurement of a population’s social fragility. Using data available for 159 countries, we selected two bio-indicators, Low Birth Weight (LBW) and Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB), and developed the Social Fragility Index (SFI). We then analysed their effect on existing vulnerability indices: the Susceptibility Index (SI) and the Prevalent Vulnerability Index (PVI). Results showed that the selected bio-indicators and particularly the proposed index are efficient in measuring the fragility of a community before a disaster, and that they could also be used to measure the social impact caused by an extreme natural event, technological disasters, population displacement/migration, armed unrest, conflict, changes in political regimes, and economic crises.
- David M. Neal
- August 1984
- Blame occurs frequently after disasters, yet, the process of blame is a neglected topic of disaster research. Our study looks at how a grassroots citizen\\'s group blamed a local company for air pollution and health problems. The blaming process directed toward the company aided in the mobilization of the citizen\\'s group but also prevented any immediate issue-oriented actions. As blame directed toward the company decreased within the group, solidarity within the group decreased. Yet, as blame decreased within the group, issue-oriented actions by the group increased. The placement of blame by the group had both positive and negative consequences for their goals. Comparing this case with other studies of blame in disaster, we found: 1) placing blame does not lead to structural changes in the social system, 2) organizations can be the focus of blame, and 3) only one target of blame can exist. In addition, we suggest that the type of disaster (diffuse or focalized, and technological or natural) may have an impact upon who or what becomes the target of blame.
- Ronald W. Perry, Beverly A. Cigler, Charlotte A. Cottrill, Maxwell A. Cameron, James S. Nyman, Judith A. Bradbury, Daniel J. Alesch
- August 1989
- Crisis Management: A Casebook.\r\n\r\nManaging Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives.\r\n\r\nDisasters: Violence of Nature and Threats by Man.\r\n\r\nEnvironmental Hazards: Communicating Risk as a Social Process.\r\n\r\nRisk Assessment and Management: Emergency Planning Perspectives.\r\n\r\nThe Politics of Earthquake Prediction.\r\n\r\nDisable Persons and Earthquake Hazards.\r\n\r\nSearching for Safety.\r\n\r\n
- Ronald W. Perry, William A. Wallace, Eric K. Noji, Charles E. Faupel, Anthony Yezer
- March 1989
- Reviews of Evacuation in Emergencies: An Annotated Guide to Research and A Guide for Emergency Evacuation Management and Operations by Ronald W. Perry
Review of Terminal Disasters: Computer Applications in Emergency Management by William A. Wallace
Reviews of Mass Casualties: A Lessons Learned Approach and Triage Decision Trees and Triage Protocols by Eric K. Noji
Review of Race, Religion, and Ethnicity in Disaster Recovery by Charles E. Faupel
Review of The Economics of Bushfires: The South Australian Experience by Anthony Yezer.
- Simon Bennett
- August 2004
- No abstract.
- Carla Prater
- March 2012
- No abstract.